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Flame Retardant Mechanism Of Polyester Fiber
Oct 30, 2017

There are many kinds of polyester fibers, and their structures are different. Therefore, their combustion conditions are different. The combustion of textiles, like other materials, must have three conditions: heat, air and fuel. The combustion of textiles is caused by external heat sources. When the temperature of the heat source reaches a certain height, it decomposes or breaks down to produce combustible gas, which is mixed with oxygen in the air to make it burn. In the meantime, the physical and chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase, liquid phase and solid phase are very complicated and affected by various factors, so it is still difficult to quantitatively analyze it. The qualitative explanation of textile combustion is not perfect.

The process of textile combustion includes heating, melting, pyrolysis and decomposition, oxidation and ignition. The speed in each step is also affected by many factors. After the heating of textiles, the physical changes such as water evaporation, softening and melting are the first, followed by chemical changes such as pyrolysis and decomposition. The physical changes are related to the specific heat, thermal conductivity, melting heat and latent heat of the textile fiber; the chemical change is determined by the decomposition temperature, the decomposition temperature and the latent heat of the fiber. In addition, the type, structure and surface morphology of textiles also affect their combustion.

Thermal cracking of 1. polyester fiber

Pyrolysis of fibers is a crucial step in the combustion process of textiles, which determines the composition and proportion of pyrolysis products, and has a great impact on the possibility of further combustion. Understanding the pyrolysis and pyrolysis products of textiles can help us develop flame retardants and develop flame retardant finishing processes for textiles. By flame retardant finishing, these flammable substances can be reduced or closed, so as to achieve the purpose of flame retardant.

Polyester fiber is one of the widely used synthetic fiber, its combustion and other synthetic polymer materials, contact and high temperature heat source, heat absorption after pyrolysis, pyrolysis reaction of flammable gases, flammable gases in the air (oxygen) under the condition of the existence of combustion occurs, the combustion heat absorbed by the fiber after the fiber and promote the pyrolysis and combustion to further, forming a cycle. Synthetic fiber continuous combustion, must meet the following conditions: 1 polymer decomposition, can produce combustible gas burning the heat, heating to polymer, to continuously produce combustible gas; the combustible gas generated can be mixed with oxygen, and spread to the already burning part; the burning part spread to mixed area combustible gas and oxygen in. According to these four conditions, people put forward the basic principle of flame retardant: reduce (or not) to generate pyrolysis gas, the basic reaction hinder gas phase combustion, combustion heat absorption area, dilution and isolation of the air.

The flame retardancy of the material is realized by flame retardant, condensed phase flame retardant, interrupted heat exchange, flame retardant and other mechanisms. Inhibition of promoting combustion reaction chain growth ability of free radicals is a flame retardant function of gas phase flame retardant; delay or prevent the polymer thermal decomposition flame retardant effect of condensed phase flame in solid phase; flame retardant polymer combustion heat generated away due to the flame retardant belongs to the class of physical interruption of heat exchanger. But the combustion and flame retardant is a very complex process, involving many factors and influence, will be a flame retardant mechanism of flame retardant system is strictly divided into one is difficult, in fact many flame retardant flame retardant mechanism plays a role in several at the same time.

The flame retardant finishing method of polyester fabric has the advantages of simple process and low cost. It is advantageous to the modification of silk fabric in terms of variety of circulation and adaptability to flame retardant requirements. But if the amount of flame retardant is more, it will affect the handle and color of fabric more. There are three kinds of flame retardant finishing methods for polyester fabric:

1) the flame retardant was designed as an adsorption structure, such as disperse dye, and the finishing dyeing and one bath process was adopted. Such as flame retardant JLSUN, ATF.

2) for dyeing polyester fiber with great affinity flame retardant agent fixed on fiber. There are few kinds of flame retardants suitable for this method, which have little impact on hand feeling and good fastness to washing. Such as flame retardant JLSUN, ATP.

3) dissolving type flame retardant flame retardant has the advantages of convenient use, good effect, suitable for natural and chemical fiber fabrics and paper not wash resistant flame retardant finish, also suitable for hotels, cars and other decorative materials used in flame retardant finishing.